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Historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland.
The ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of these groups have been hotly debated; the time and route of the original settlement of Slavic peoples in these regions lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great.
He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's civil and criminal laws, 1333–70.
The origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole" (field).
In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites ("Lechici"), which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I.
The Golden Liberty of the nobles began to develop under Casimir's rule, when in return for their military support, the king made a series of concessions to the nobility, and establishing their legal status as superior to that of the townsmen.
When Casimir the Great died in 1370, leaving no legitimate male heir, the Piast dynasty came to an end.
The Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD.The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin.This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest (about 1 million km which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of .In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the German march into Poland.