The island of Neuwerk and two small neighbouring islands Scharhörn and Nigehörn, located in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are also part of Hamburg.
The neighbourhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz, Francop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region (old land), the biggest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe.
Hamburg's official name is the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg).
It reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, as a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, and also the fact that Hamburg is a city-state and one of the sixteen States of Germany.
The city centre is situated around the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and Außenalster ("Outer Alster") both of which were originally formed by impounding the River Alster to create lakes.In 1030, the city was burned down by King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland.Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214.Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen.
In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and Hamburg subsequently received Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France and, in the 17th century, Sephardi Jews from Portugal. In 845, a fleet of 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg which, at that time, was a town of around 500 inhabitants.Hamburg is a major transport hub in Northern Germany and is one of the most affluent cities in Europe.It has become a media and industrial centre, with plants and facilities belonging to Airbus, Blohm Voss and Aurubis.Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I to the First French Empire (1810–14).